*Functional Python Programming*(https://www.packtpub.com/application-development/functional-python-programming) I was pressured by one of the technical reviewers to create a better example of composite function creation with decorators.

This was a difficult request. First, of course, "better" is poorly defined. More importantly, the example in the book is extensive and includes the edge-of-the-envelope "don't do this in real code" parts, too. It's important to be thorough. Finally, it's real-world data cleansing code. It's important to be pragmatic, but, it's kind of boring. I really do beat it into submission showing simple decorators, parameterized decorators, and crazy obscurely bad decorators.

In this case, "better" might simply mean "less thorough."

But, perhaps "better" means "less focused on cleansing and more focused on something else."

**On Decoration**

The essence of the chapter -- and the extensive example -- is that we can use decorators as higher-order functions to build composite functions.

Here's an alternative example. This will combine z-score normalization with another reduction function. Let's say we're doing calculations that require us to normalize a set of data points before using them in some reduction.

Normalizing is the process of scaling a value by the mean and standard deviation of the collection. Chapter 4 covers this in some detail. Reductions like creating a sum are the subject of Chapter 6. I won't rehash the details of these topics in this blog post.

Here's another use of decorators to create a composite function.

def normalize( mean, stdev ): normalize = lambda x: (x-mean)/stdev def concrete_decorator( function ): @wraps(function) def wrapped( data_arg ): z = map( normalize, data_arg ) return function( z ) return wrapped return concrete_decorator

The essential feature of the @normalize(mean, stdev) decorator is to apply the normalization to the vector of argument values to the original function. We can use it like this.

>>> d = [ 2, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 7, 9 ] >>> from Chapter_4.ch04_ex4 import mean, stdev >>> m_d, s_d = mean(d), stdev(d) >>> @normalize(m_d, s_d) >>> def norm_list(d): ... return list(d) >>> >>> norm_list(d) [-1.5, -0.5, -0.5, -0.5, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 2.0]

W've create a norm_list() function which applies a normalization to the given values. This function is a composite of normalization plus list().

Clearly, parts of this are deranged. We can't even define the norm_list() function until we have mean and standard deviation parameters for the samples. This doesn't seem appropriate.

Here's a slightly more interesting composite function. This combines normalization with sum().

>>> @normalize(m_d, s_d) >>> def norm_sum(d): ... return sum(d) >>> >>> norm_sum(d) 0.0

We've defined the normalized sum function and applied it to a vector of values. The normalization has parameters applied. Those parameters are relatively static compared with the parameters given to the composite function.

It's still a bit creepy because we can't define norm_sum() until we have the mean and standard deviation.

It's not clear to me that a more mathematical example is going to be better. Indeed, the limitation on decorators seems to be this:

- The original (decorated) function can have lots of parameters;
- The functions being composed by the decorator must either have no parameters, or have very static "configuration" parameters.

If we try to compose functions in a more general way -- all of the functions have parameters -- we're in for problems. That's why the data cleansing pipeline seems to be the ideal use for decorators.